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Current Advances in the Preparation of SnO2 Electron Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells

Kazuhiro Manseki
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

Lucas Splingaire
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA

Udo Schnupf
Mund-Lagowski Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA

Takashi Sugiura
Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

Saeid Vafaei
Mechanical Engineering Department, Bradley University, Peoria, IL, USA

DOI: 10.1615/TFEC2020.sol.033235
pages 585-592

Abstract

Design of semiconductor SnO2 nanomaterials have gained considerable attention owing to their intriguing performance of electron transport in halide perovskite solar cells (PSC). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the different preparation methods of semiconductor SnO2 films as electron transport layers for PSC. Particular focus is paid to the preparation and characteristics of the SnO2 particles/films in order to understand the relationship between the quality of nanostructured SnO2 films and performance of solar cells. One of the major approaches to obtain SnO2 layers has been the spin-coating deposition of SnO2 nanofluids, made by the surface modification of SnO2 nano-colloids. The preparation of SnO2 nanoparticles using Tin(IV) salts has also been reported to produce a smooth SnO2 film. Light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of near 20% has been reported in several reports on PSC. The advantage of using SnO2 materials includes its superior conductivity, which is much higher than TiO2. This paper also presents the creation of SnO2 nanoparticles, an alternative process of obtaining SnO2 electron transport materials, that can be achieved through a freeze-drying process of Tin(IV) precursors. Crystal growth of SnO2 can be controlled at significantly low temperatures at less than 40 °C.

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