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Second Thermal and Fluids Engineering  Conference

ISSN: 2379-1748
ISBN: 978-1-56700-430-4



Most of working fluids have low thermal conductivities, therefore they cannot be a suitable cooling liquid for heat transfer phenomena. Recently, the high conductive nanoparticles have been introduced into the base liquids to enhance the overall thermal conductivity of the working liquid. The mixture of nanoparticle and base liquid is called nanofluid. It has been observed that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids depends on (a) concentration and characteristics of nanoparticles, including size, material, shape, coating and additive materials, (b) base liquid material and combination of base liquid, nanoparticles and possible surfactants. This paper will (a) demonstrate the mechanisms of effects of nanoparticles on nanofluid thermal conductivity, (b) investigate the effects of material, shape, size and concentration of nanoparticles on nanofluid thermal conductivity, (c) study the effects of homogeneity of nanoparticles on nanofluid thermal conductivity and how to prevent the nanoparticle agglomeration in the nanofluids such as using coating method or/and adding additive materials. Eventually, this paper will suggest how to engineer the nanofluids to obtain the highest thermal conductivity.
Theoretical models and empirical correlations have been developed to predict the thermal conductivity of nanofluids. Some of the theoretical models developed based on mechanisms of the effects of nanoparticles on thermal conductivity, such as Brownian motion, aggregation, and layering phenomena. This paper will (a) collect the existing theoretical and empirical expressions, (b) examine and study the level of accuracy of the theoretical and empirical expressions, using existing experimental data, and will suggest the more reliable correlations.

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