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Second Thermal and Fluids Engineering  Conference

ISSN: 2379-1748
ISBN: 978-1-56700-430-4

Laboratory Development of a Self-Powered FONTAN for Treatment of Congenital Heart Disease

Arka Das
PhD candidate

Anthony M. Khoury
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA

Jake Tibbets
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA

Eduardo Divo
Department of Mechanical Engineering Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA

Alain J. Kassab
Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA

William DeCampli
University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA; Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL 32806, USA

Abstract

Around 8% of all newborns with a Congenital Heart Defect (CHD) have only a single functioning ventricle. The Fontan operation has served as a palliation for this anomaly for decades, but the surgery entails multiple complications and survival rate is less than 50% by adulthood. A rapidly testable novel alternative is proposed by creating a bifurcating graft, or Injection Jet Shunt (IJS), used to "entrain" the pulmonary flow and thus provide assistance while reducing the caval pressure. A benchtop Mock Flow Loop (MFL) is configured to validate this hypothesis. Three IJS nozzle of varying diameters 2mm, 3mm and 4mm with two different graft settings are tested to validate the hypothesis and optimize the caval pressure reduction. The MFL is based on a Lumped-Parameter Model (LPM) of the Fontan circulation and is comprised of upper and lower systemic as well as left and right pulmonary compartments. Needle valves are used to accurately replicate vascular resistance (R) while compliance chambers are used to mimic vascular compliance values (C). The Fontan MFL is driven with cardiac pulsatility provided by a Harvard Apparatus medical pump. Patient-specific models of the centerpiece of the MFL along with the grafts (IJS) are produced via 3D printing. Baseline values are validated against patient-specific waveforms. Flow and pressure sensor data at specific points in the MFL are acquired via a National Instruments multichannel data acquisition board and processed using LabView. With the experimental testing of 3mm IJS an average caval pressure reduction of 5.38 mmHg is obtained with the ratio of pulmonary to systemic flow of 1.66.

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