## DNS Study of Heat Transfer in Particle-Laden Turbulent Channel Flows
## AbstractWe study the effect of turbulence-particle interactions on heat transfer in particle-laden turbulent channel flows using direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the turbulent flow and Lagrangian simulation of the particles. Two-way coupling between the turbulence and particles is enforced using an Eulerian-Lagrangian approach, in which the momentum and energy exchange between the continuous fluid phase and the discrete particles is fully taken into account. It is found that when the particle inertia increases, the turbulent heat flux decreases, while the particle feedback heat flux and the molecular heat flux increase. The contributions to heat transfer of particle-to-fluid momentum feedback and heat feedback are investigated in detail. It is found that the momentum feedback decreases the fluid temperature fluctuations while the heat feedback increases it. While the presence of particles reduces the turbulent heat flux, the particle-to-fluid feedback enhances the heat flux and the total heat flux can be higher than that in particle-free flows if the inertia and heat capacity of the particles are large, in which case momentum and heat feedbacks from the particles must be taken into account in computation and modeling. |

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