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Verification of Turbulence Models for Flow in a Constricted Pipe at Low Reynolds Number

Fardin Khalili
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Peshala P. T Gamage
University of Central Florida, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Biomedical Acoustic Research Lab, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

Hansen A Mansy
University of Central Florida, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Biomedical Acoustic Research Lab, Orlando, FL 32816, USA

DOI: 10.1615/TFEC2018.tfl.021662
pages 1865-1874


KEY WORDS: Turbulence, Arterial Stenosis, Constricted Pipe, Large Eddy Simulation, Acoustics, Laser Doppler Anemometry

Abstract

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a useful tool for prediction of turbulence in aerodynamic and biomedical applications. The choice of appropriate turbulence models is key to reaching accurate predictions. The present investigation concentrated on the comparison of different turbulence models for predicting the flow field downstream of a constricted pipe. This geometry is relevant to arterial stenosis in patients with vascular diseases. More specifically, the results of Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and scale resolving simulation (SRS) turbulence models such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) were compared with experimental measurements. Comparisons included the mean flow and fluctuations downstream of the constriction. Results showed that the LES model was in better agreement with the velocity measurements performed using a Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). In addition, although URANS models predicted a wake region size and mean flow velocities comparable to SRS turbulence models, no small-scale vortical structures can be observed in the URANS solution due to the nature of these models. Modeling of these structures would, however, be helpful when more detailed flow behavior is needed such as in studies of acoustic sources. Hence, LES would be an optimal turbulence model for the flow under consideration, especially when sound generation would be of interest.

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