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Cold plate cooling simulation for Lithium-ion semi-passive battery thermal management system

Damon Gresham-Chisolm
Howard University, G-048, 2300 Sixth St, Washington, D.C, 20059, USA

Sonya T. Smith
Howard University, G-048, 2300 Sixth St, Washington, D.C, 20059, USA

DOI: 10.1615/TFEC2019.tta.026494
pages 1783-1793


KEY WORDS: battery pack, thermal management, electric vehicle

Abstract

Thermal management of Lithium-ion battery packs is important to the performance, cost, reliability, and durability of Electric Vehicles (EVs). Common thermal management systems in commercial EVs include only active cooling, such as liquid and air. Passive cooling technologies in high-density power packs are not usually applied due to their lack of effective heat removal. This study demonstrates the use of active cooling strategies to improve the performance of a passive one. Cold plate technology is an active system that improves the heat removal efficacy of a thermal composite cooling system.
Simulations were conducted for a thermal composite cooling system. The results showed that the design met the cooling requirement for a 4.8 kW unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) battery pack at peak power. The optimum temperature range was maintained for 13.5 minutes until thermal runaway occurred. A cold plate design was then integrated into the pack design and was found to significantly increase vehicle operating time in the optimum temperature range. This demonstration provides battery pack designs to potentially increase thermal composite technology usage commercially.

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