Sintering Strategies for Creating 3D TiO2 Nanomaterials for Photovoltaic Applications
Rod-TiO2 and spherical TiO2 nanoparticles were mixed with water to produce nanofluid. Rod TiO2
nanoparticles with high surface area in Rutile crystal phase were synthesized at 27 °C using TiCl4 in
aqueous solution. The water based nanofluid consisting of Rutile rod-TiO2 and spherical Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited on Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass, using the spin coating method. The deposited TiO2 nanoparticles were sintered to fuse nanoparticles, using a programmable oven. The effects of ramping rate, maximum temperature and period of maximum
temperature on 3D structure characteristics of deposited TiO2 nanofluids were investigated. It was found that as maximum temperature and period of maximum temperature decrease, the crystal growth increases and consequently porosity of deposited nanoparticles increases while nanoparticles fusing to enhance electron transport property. Similarly, it was observed the porosity and crystal growth
increased as the ramping rate decreased.