Current Advances in the Preparation of SnO2 Electron Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells
Design of semiconductor SnO2 nanomaterials have gained considerable attention owing to their intriguing performance of electron transport in halide perovskite solar cells (PSC). The purpose of this paper is to investigate the different preparation methods of semiconductor SnO2 films as electron transport layers for PSC. Particular focus is paid to the preparation and characteristics of the SnO2 particles/films in order to understand the relationship between the quality of nanostructured SnO2 films and performance of solar cells. One of the major approaches to obtain SnO2 layers has been the spin-coating deposition of SnO2 nanofluids, made by the surface modification of SnO2 nano-colloids.
The preparation of SnO2 nanoparticles using Tin(IV) salts has also been reported to produce a smooth SnO2 film. Light-to-electricity conversion efficiency of near 20% has been reported in several reports
on PSC. The advantage of using SnO2 materials includes its superior conductivity, which is much higher than TiO2. This paper also presents the creation of SnO2 nanoparticles, an alternative process of obtaining SnO2 electron transport materials, that can be achieved through a freeze-drying process of Tin(IV) precursors. Crystal growth of SnO2 can be controlled at significantly low temperatures at less than 40 °C.