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ISSN Online: 2379-1748

7th Thermal and Fluids Engineering Conference (TFEC)
SJR: 0.152 SNIP: 0.14 CiteScore™:: 0.5

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Clarivate CPCI (Proceedings) Scopus
May, 15-18, 2022 , Las Vegas, NV, USA

Experimental Investigation of Gas Kick behavior during Shut-in Condition

Get access (open in a dialog) pages 141-150
DOI: 10.1615/TFEC2022.tfs.040677


The fluid flow pattern in the annulus when a gas kick occurs, changes as the kick migrates towards the surface. Experimental investigation of the evolution of this flow behavior is performed in the annulus of a 2.375-inch drill-pipe and a 5.5-inch outer-casing 140 ft tall. Gas kicks were initiated at 75 psi and 85 psi injection pressures. The gas kick time ranged from 30 to 500 seconds and rates from 0.03 ft3/min to 0.3 ft3/min for air and carbon dioxide. The kicks simulate different gas-liquid mass ratios of about 2 to 230 micro-units for air and 800 to 1540 micro-units for carbon dioxide. The observation shows that kick pressure and duration of the kick do not affect the initial Taylor bubble or kick impact significantly. However, the initial kick pressure and injection time significantly affected the flow pattern, trailing the initial impact "After Taylor bubble" flow. The "After Taylor bubble" flow pattern changed from bubbly flow to dispersed bubbles and then to churn flow as the kick pressure and duration increased. These observations are more appreciable towards the surface, especially when the influx type is carbon dioxide, due to the higher gas solubility of carbon dioxide in water as the pressure increases downwards. The onset of turbulence following the initial kick sign changes with the initial kick pressure and influx of mass. The drill-pipe eccentricity also affects the in-situ flow pattern of the rising fluid influx. This work also presents gas kick data for shut-in wellbores with air and carbon dioxide influx.